This document describes at a high level the underlying OMNI2 data
contained in the OMNIWeb system at NASA/GSFC's Space Physics Data Facility.
A companion file at
gives significantly more details about OMNI 2 Preparation.
The table below identifies the dates for which different parameters of
OMNI data are available.
YYYY DDD - YYYY DDD
1963 331 - 2014 010 (IMF)
1963 331 - 2014 028 (Plasma)
1967 150 - 2014 031 (Energetic Proton Fluxes)
1963 001 - 2013 365 (Kp,ap indexes, Sunspot Number, f10.7 index )
1963 001 - 2009 365 (Dst indices)
2010 001 - 2011 365 (Provisional Dst indices)
2012 001 - 2014 031 (Quick Look : 2009- .. Dst-index)
1963 001 - 1988 182 (AE, AL,AU-index)
1990 001 - 2013 243 (Provisional AE-index)
1975 001 - 2014 031 (PCn index)
See below for differences among final, provisional and quick look Dst and AE indices
For a plot/table of annual coverages for the entire OMNI time span, click
This section lists all the words in the records of the OMNI data set,
and various notes and units as appropriate. The format for each word is
as contained in the ftp-accessible annual ASCII files. The format
underlying OMNIWeb is Common Data Format (CDF), and is typically
invisible to users. Subsetted ASCII data files created during OMNIWeb
sessions are accompanied by their own format statements.
Each record contains 55 words as described below.
WORD TYPE MEANING UNITS/COMMENTS
1 I4 Year 1963,1964,1965...
2 I4 Decimal Day Day of year (Jan 1 = Day 1)
3 I3 Decimal Hour (0, 1, ...23; average for "1" is from
01:00 to 02:00)
4 I5 Bartels Rotation Number
5 I3 ID for IMF SC See table in section 6
6 I3 ID for SW Plasma SC See table in section 6
7 I4 # of fine time scale
points in IMF Avgs
8 I4 # of fine time scale
points in Plasma Avgs
9 F6.1 Field Magnitude Avg,
10 F6.1 Magnitude of Average nT
Field vector, |<B>|
11 F6.1 Lat. Angle of avg. Deg (GSE Coords)
12 F6.1 Long. Angle of avg. Deg (GSE Coords)
13 F6.1 Bx,GSE (nT)
14 F6.1 By,GSE (nT)
15 F6.1 Bz,GSE (nT)
16 F6.1 By,GSM (nT)
17 F6.1 Bz,GSM (nT)
18 F6.1 sigma-|B| RMS Standard deviation in avg
magnitude (wd. 10), nT
19 F6.1 sigma-B RMS Standard deviation in field
vector, in nT; see footnote 3
20 F6.1 sigma-Bx RMS Standard deviation in GSE X
comp. av, nT
21 F6.1 sigma-By RMS Standard deviation in GSE Y
comp, av, nT
22 F6.1 sigma-Bz RMS standard deviation in GSE Z
comp, av, nT
23 F9.0 Proton temperature Degrees Kelvin
24 F6.1 Proton density #N/cm**3
25 F6.0 Bulk speed Km/sec.
26 F6.1 Bulk flow longitude phi-V, degrees. phi-V increases positively/negatively
from zero as the flow direction changes from being along
the -Xgse axis toward the +Ygse/-Ygse axis;
see footnote 1)
27 F6.1 Bulk flow latitude theta-V, degrees. theta-V increases positively/negatively
from zero as the flow direction changes from being in
the Xgse-Ygse plane toward the +Zgse/-Zgse axis;
see footnote 1)
28 F6.3 Na/Np Alpha/Proton ratio
29 F6.2 Flow Pressure P (nPa) = (1.67/10**6) * Np*V**2 * (1+ 4*Na/Np)
for hours with non-fill Na/Np ratios and
P (nPa) = (2.0/10**6) * Np*V**2
for hours with fill values for Na/Np more
30 F9.0 sigma-T Degrees Kelvin
31 F6.1 sigma-n cm -3
32 F6.0 sigma-V km/sec
33 F6.1 sigma-phi-V deg
34 F6.1 sigma-theta-V deg
35 F6.3 sigma-ratio
36 F7.2 Electric field mV/m, -V(km/s) * Bz (nT; GSM) * 10**-3
37 F7.2 Plasma beta Beta = [(T*4.16/10**5) + 5.34] * Np / B**2, more
38 F6.1 Alfven mach number Ma = (V * Np**0.5) / 20 * B , more
39 I3 Kp*10 3-hr Kp index from NGDC
(See footnote 2)
40 I4 R daily Sunspot Number from NGDC
41 I6 DST Index nT, from Kyoto
42 I5 AE-index nT, from Kyoto
43 F10.2 PROT Flux 1/(cm^2 sec ster), >1 MeV
44 F9.2 PROT Flux 1/(cm^2 sec ster), >2 MeV
45 F9.2 PROT Flux 1/(cm^2 sec ster), >4 MeV
46 F9.2 PROT Flux 1/(cm^2 sec ster), >10 MeV
47 F9.2 PROT Flux 1/(cm^2 sec ster), >30 MeV
48 F9.2 PROT Flux 1/(cm^2 sec ster), >60 MeV
49 I3 M'SPH Flux Flag = 6: No m'spheric contribution
= 5: M'sph contrib in lowest
= 4: M'sph c in lowest 2 chnls
= 1: M'sph c in lowest 5 chnls
= 0: M'sph c in all channels
=-1: Not checked for M'sph c:
relevant after 88/306
(See footnote 4)
50 I4 ap-index, nT, from NGDC
51 F6.1 f10.7_index, (10**-22) Watts/meter sq/hertz, from NGDC
adjusted to 1AU
52 F6.1 PC(N) index, Data Center for Geomagnetism, Copenhagen
53 I6 AL-index, nT, from Kyoto
54 I6 AU-index, nT, from Kyoto
55 F5.1 Magnetosonic mach number =V/Magnetosonic_speed
Magnetosonic speed = [(sound speed)**2 + (Alfv speed)**2]**0.5
The Alfven speed = 20. * B / N**0.5
The sound speed = 0.12 * [T + 1.28*10**5]**0.5
For details click HERE
Note that for missing data, fill values consisting of a blank
followed by 9's which together constitute the Ix or Fx.y format are used.
Flow-vector cartesian components in GSE coordinates
may be derived from the given speed and angles as
Vx = - V * cos(theta) * cos(phi)
Vy = + V * cos(theta) * sin(phi)
Vz = + V * sin(theta)
The standard Kp values look like 0, 0+, 1-, 1, 1+, 2-, ...
but are stored as Kp = 0, 3, 7, 10, 13, 17, ... in the OMNI data set.
We have mapped 0+ to 3, 1- to 7, 1 to 10, 1+ to 13, 2- to 17, etc.
Sigma-B is computed as:
SQRT [(sigma(Bx))**2 + (sigma(By))**2 + (sigma(Bz))**2].
Note that this is the length of the vector formed from the standard
deviations of component averages. It is not the standard deviation in
the length of the vector formedfrom the average components.
This data set also contains fluxes of energetic protons above
1, 2, 4, 10, 30 and 60 MeV from JHU/APL instruments on IMP spacecraft
for 1967/150 to 2005/365 and fluxes of protons above 10, 30, and 60 MeV
from NOAA instruments on GOES spacecraft, spanning 2006/001 to near-
We have computed daily and 27-day average values for all the OMNI2 parameters,
and have made them accessible via OMNIWeb and via anon/ftp.
Only arithmetic averaging was done. (No averaging of logarithms.)
No threshold numbers of finer scale points were required.
See special note on IMF angles below.
The daily averages are taken over OMNI's basic hourly values, and the 27- day
averages are taken over the daily averages. The corresponding standard
deviations relate only to these averagings and do not capture the variances
in the higher resolution data.
The 27-day averages are for discrete Bartels rotation numbers. Thus the first
such average fully within 1999 spans January 9 through February 4.
The record format for the daily and 27-day averages is the same as for the hourly
data, although certain fields have special meanings.
The time words (year, day, hour) correspond to the first hour of the
averaging period (day or 27-day interval).
The ID's for the magnetic field and plasma spacecraft are set to zero,
since the daily and 27-day averages frequently involve data from multiple
The numbers of fine scale points in the plasma and field averages are
counts of (1) hourly values contributing to daily averages or (2) daily
values contributing to 27-day averages. NOTE THAT WE HAVE NOT REQUIRED ANY
MINIMUM NUMBER OF POINTS TO COMPUTE AN AVERAGE. For cases where there was
only one point, the standard deviations were set to zero.
Kp was treated specially. After determining daily or 27-averages from
basic values such as 10 (1), 13 (1+), 17 (2-), 20 (2), the average was
rounded to the nearest "standard value" of Kp (i.e., 10, 13, 17, 20, ...).
For cases where the average was exactly in the middle between standard
values (e.g., 15), the higher standard value (17 in this case) was used.
On December 6, 2004, words 10-12 (magnitude and direction angles of
vector-averaged IMF), which had been determined by simple averaging over
finer scale values of these words, were replaced in OMNI by values computed
from daily (or 27-day) averaged IMF Cartesian components.
The following spacecraft identifiers have been used:
Spacecraft name Spacecraft ID
IMP 1 (Expl 18) 18
IMP 3 (Expl 28) 28
IMP 4 (Expl 34) 34
IMP 5 (Expl 41) 41
IMP 6 (Expl 43) 43
IMP 7 (Expl 47) 47 MAG and Plasma/MIT
IMP 7 (Expl 47) 44 Plasma/LANL
IMP 8 (Expl 50) 50 MAG and Plasma/MIT
IMP 8 (Expl 50) 45 Plasma/LANL
AIMP 1 (Expl 33) 33
AIMP 2 (Expl 35) 35
HEOS 1 and HEOS 2 1
VELA 3 3
OGO 5 5
Merged LANL VELA speeds 97
Merged LANL IMP-6,-7,-8 T,N,V 98
ISEE 3 13
ISEE 1 11
PROGNOZ 10 10
The OMNI2 data set has, since its creation, contained daily sunspot numbers and three geomagnetic
activity indices: Kp (3-hr), AE (1-hr), and Dst (1-hr). In 2009, additional indices were
added: F10.7, ap, AL, AU and PCI(N). These latter indices are grouped as "ancillary parameters"
near the bottom of the OMNIWeb page providing plots and list capabilities. Multi-hour indices
are distributed into the relevant 1-hour OMNI records.
Hourly AE, AL, AU and Dst values have been computed at WDC for Geomagnetism at U. Kyoto for many
years now. See the pre-Kyoto and Kyoto era histories at
http://swdcwww.kugi.kyoto-u.ac.jp/dstae/index.html. This page, and those it links to, give full
accounts of the derivations of final, provisional and quick-look AE and Dst values. Briefly,
the levels are distinguished by the different levels of completeness of ground observatory
network contributing to the indices and the extent of cleaning of the input data
(zero level determinations, despiking, etc.) In particular, the U.Kyoto team notes that the
quick look data are derived mainly for monitoring purposes, and that any use of such indices
in publications should clearly indicate that the indices are quick-look. In general, there is
the hope, constrained by available resources, that quick look indexes will be replaced by
provisional values, and provisional values by final values. The AE and Dst values in OMNI
will be extended and upgraded as those at U. Kyoto are.
The Kp, ap, F10.7 and Rz indices are explained at, and obtained electronically from, NOAA's
National Geophysical Data Center. See ftp://ftp.ngdc.noaa.gov/STP/GEOMAGNETIC_DATA/INDICES/.
Note footnote 2 in section 4 above, about OMNI's mapping of standard
Kp values of 0, 0+, 1-, 1, 1+, ..., 9-, 9 to 0, 3, 7, 10, 13, ... 87, 90.
Kp and ap are 3-hour indices, while F10.7 and Rz are daily indices.
PC(N) is the Polar Cap Index determined from the North polar cap station at Thule, Greenland.
The index is basically a 15-min index that we have averaged up to hourly for inclusion in OMNI.
PC(N) is taken from ftp://ftp.space.dtu.dk/WDC/indices/pcn/, World Data Center for Geomagnetism,
National Space Institute, Copenhagen
For questions or comments about the OMNI data contents, please contact
Dr. Natalia Papitashvili, Natalia.E.Papitashvili@gsfc.nasa.gov
672, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 20771.
Detailed documentation on data sources for the original data set, cross comparisons and
normalizations of contributing source-specific data sets, time shifting of
ISEE 3 data, etc. are available by clicking
to the SPDF OMNIWeb database as the source of data used
in publications is requested:
"The OMNI data were obtained from the GSFC/SPDF OMNIWeb interface at
Further, for recent years when few
sources (IMP 8, Wind, ACE, Geotail) contributed to OMNI, it would be appropriate
to also cite the PI's who provided
the data to OMNI. Copies of preprints or reprints of OMNI-based
publications sent to Natalia Papitashvili (address below) would be appreciated
for tracking purposes.
The best citable reference to OMNI data is J.H. King and N.E. Papitashvili,
Solar wind spatial scales in and comparisons of hourly Wind and ACE plasma
and magnetic field data, J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 110, No. A2, A02209,
If you have any questions/comments about OMNI/OMNIWEB data and service, contact:
Dr. Natalia Papitashvili, Space Physics Data Facility, Mail Code 672, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771